Exciting discoveries

Loch Leven: another day, another wee bit of Autumnwatch to catch up on. Berries, snakes, Spoonbills and Bewick’s Swans; where to begin?


Perhaps at the start: berries. Loch Leven must currently be looking very attractive to berry-eating birds as we have a lot of native trees planted around the reserve, including Rowan. The Rowan berries have already been getting munched by Blackbirds, and now Redwings and Fieldfares are taking their share. The bird we’re all hoping for though, is the Waxwing!

Waxwings are somewhat like thrushes but aren’t in the same family. They are very much berry eating birds and tend to stick to Rowan, although Whitebeam berries will be equally satisfactory for them. One thing that is quite amazing about Waxwings is that their livers are extremely strong, strong enough to be able to handle fermented berries! If we were to try that we’d end up in a spot of bother.


Redwings are currently enjoying the berries at Loch Leven

Next, those amazing Spoonbills. Unfortunately we don’t have Sponnbills at Loch Leven… yet. They are only just re-establishing themselves in the UK after being made extinct here, so who knows, in a few years we might have a Spoonbill or two dropping into Loch Leven for the winter!

One thing they pointed out on Autumnwatch was the way in which a Spoonbill feeds; by sifting the water through it’s beak by moving it’s head side to side. Another bird that has a similar technique is the Shoveler, a lovely duck that we do have quite a few of on the loch.


Notice the extraordinary bill! Seen from the hides at Vane Farm

Shovelers have a special adaptation in their beaks that allows them to almost sieve the water through their beaks by taking water in, then forcing it out through special “lamellae” using it’s tongue. These lamellae are basically comb-like bristles that catch any nutritious particles that are in the water.

Below is a closer look at the extraordinary bill, plus a bird’s-eye view, which demonstrates why they are occasionally known as ‘spoonbills’!

I was quite amazed at the flight that Sacha Dench is taking on, I’m following it all here, on Twitter. Bewick’s Swans don’t tend to touch down in Scotland but they are quite difficult to tell apart from Whoopers.

Sacha’s aim is to find out about the journey the Bewick’s Swans are taking, and why their population is declining using a paramotor. Here at Loch Leven, we don’t have a paramotor so we rely on other methods of finding out about our bird’s life stories.


Whooper Swans in fields near Portmoak Airfield

The above picture was taken 3 years ago by Jeremy. The particularly interesting thing about this picture is that one of the swans has a coloured ring on it’s leg. This isn’t a fashion statement, it’s an easy way of tracking individuals. Jeremy saw the ring, read the code and made a note of the colour and then sent the details away to the person who ringed it.

If you’d like to find out where one of our Whoopers came from, then click here to read Jeremy’s blog post from 3 years ago. I’ll be out this winter looking for colour rings on Whoopers and perhaps the Pinkfeet as well.

The last segment was on the reptiles (mainly snakes) found at RSPB Arne. Again, we don’t have reptiles present on the reserve, although it’s possible Common Lizards just haven’t been found yet. If you want to see snake on a Scottish National Nature Reserve then I can’t recommend Muir of Dinnet NNR highly enough, on my first visit I saw 6 Adders! Read more about them on the Muir of Dinnet NNR blog.


Adder at Muir of Dinnet NNR

We do have plenty of amphibians at Loch Leven though! Today we were out grass-cutting in front of the Levenmouth Hide with the volunteers so visitors can now see the ponds, and hopefully there’s more space for birds to land on the pools!

I thought this was the perfect opportunity to take pictures of our usual amphibians, the Common Toad and the Common Frog. Indeed, both showed up on several occasions and sort of sat nicely for the camera. Which is which? Can you tell the difference?

Quick fact: Toads can secrete a toxin from their skin to keep predators at bay!

Whilst photographing these two, I did think to myself, “I wish I could get something a little rarer, perhaps a newt,” but then reminded myself that newts are probably hiding away to hibernate at this time of year and they are difficult to see even at the best time of year to see them!

However, by complete coincidence, this lovely little male Palmate Newt wandered across a piece of white plastic right where I could see it! Brilliant little thing with some very vivid colours.

As with the snakes on Autumnwatch, the amphibians at Loch Leven all predate one another! Toads will eat just about anything that moves and fits in their mouths, as will frogs. This may seem to leave the newts a little worse off, but they will eat frog and toad tadpoles so it all balances out.

To finish off, some pictures of what we’ve done today at Levenmouth. I spoke to a lot of people who said they hadn’t seen anything at the Levenmouth Hide, so hopefully our work will change that! I’ve already seen some Wigeon and Whooper Swans prospectively flying over so fingers crossed…

Later on in the week I might even have some hidden camera footage like the Spoonbill cam that they have on Autumnwatch!

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Autumnwatch time…

Loch Leven was not blessed by my presence last week as I was on Barra in the Outer Hebrides looking at eagles and migrant birds. Although to be honest, I could see the same at Loch Leven!

Eagles are perhaps a little less likely, but we do tend to have White-tailed Eagles (aka Sea Eagles) drop in over winter. They come to the loch to feed on the many thousands of geese (more on them in a bit) that are, as we all know, currently using the loch as their wintering grounds.


White-tailed Eagle

These eagles are huge, with a wingspan of up to 2.45m. A Buzzard only has a wingspan of up to 1.4m, so if you’re looking at a bird of prey and you are unsure whether it’s an eagle, it probably isn’t. My first White-tailed Eagle took me by surprise due to the size of it; they are sometimes referred to as “flying barn doors” and they really are that big!

A brief bit of goose news, we had our first Icelandic Breeding Goose Census count over the weekend. These are counts of all the geese that have flown from Iceland to winter here on the reserve. The total number of Pink-footed Geese counted were around 6,700 but it is suspected that there are around 9000 because the conditions weren’t ideal for counting.


Pink-footed Geese over the Black Woods

I don’t know about you, but I’ve got my TV plan sorted for the week, Autumnwatch every night! If you watched last night’s show then you will have seen Red Squirrels with leprosy being examined. Fortunately none of our Red Squirrels at Loch Leven appear to have leprosy, but they might be being affected by Squirrel Pox. This is a disease that is carried by the non-native Grey Squirrels who aren’t affected by it.

In order to help our beautiful Red Squirrels, it is necessary to control the Greys. If you have any sightings of Greys around the loch that you’d like to report to us then feel free to call the reserve on 01557 864439. We’re aware of at least 2 in the oak trees by the bridge over the River Leven.


Red Squirrel in Sitka Spruce

Another segment of Autumnwatch last night was looking at the Sika Deer rutting. We don’t have any Sika Deer around the reserve fortunately, as this is a non-native species that can interbreed with our native Red Deer creating hybrids. We don’t actually have Red Deer either, but we do have Roe Deer!

In my cycle around the loch today I saw 4 Roe Deer right by the path. At this time of year the Roe bucks will be strutting their stuff and trying to breed with any females that they can impress. The typical view of a Roe Deer is of it’s white rear end disappearing off in to the bushes, of a distant figure standing in a field but if you’re quiet enough then you can get quite close before they bolt off into cover.


In other non-Autumnwatch related news, I was cycling along the river at Levenmouth and decided to work something out that had been on my mind for a wee while. If you’ve walked along the stretch of the path that’s tarmacked by the river, then you’ve probably noticed the Grey Herons that are often present.

There’s one particular heron that I always see right in at the bank and I’ve always wondered what it was doing in there. Today, all was revealed as I witnessed this heron pluck a Brown Rat off the bank and then proceed to swallow it! Amazing stuff and I’d certainly say Autumnwatch-worthy as well!


Grey Heron waiting for his mates to arrive for a wee kick-about in the park

Fungi are still going strong with loads out in the woods around Grahamstone. I managed to find another species of slime mould too, although this one isn’t so spectacularly coloured. I’ve not managed to identify any of the mushrooms or other fungi yet but they look so nice that I just have to post them…

And lastly, I’d like to share with you what I called a “second sunrise”. This morning, the sun rose as per usual, but then it disappeared behind some pretty thick, low fog that had formed around Loch Leven today, in fact Kinnesswood was completely covered for the majority of the day!


They could be doing anything in that fog…

But the sun then peaked over the top of the fog, giving me some brilliant photo opportunities as the sun turned the water orange for the second time in the morning. The mist whisping off the surface of the water was an added bonus.


Well, I’ll be trying to keep up with Autumnwatch throughout the week and suggesting ways you can experience the things you see on the TV at Loch Leven National Nature Reserve!

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Things are hotting up

It’s been a busy week. Baling, fungi, squirrels, geese, swans… It’s all happening! You just need to get out on the reserve and have a wander about. Virtually all of my sightings have been from the path.

Throughout the week I’ve been walking and cycling up and down the paths checking whether visitors have been sticking to the local access guidelines, and fortunately almost everybody has. The only thing I was noticing was a slight lack of respect when it comes to dog mess, especially around Burleigh. Please do pick up after your dog, there’s no such thing as the poo fairy!


Copse Snail making the long journey across the path


Speaking of Burleigh, we were baling down there on Wednesday with the volunteers and, besides all the dog mess that we got on the wheels of our baler, we had a great day with a very well behaved baler! After baling at Burleigh, we went on round to Findatie with the trailer and have picked up some of the bales from there. We’ll remove more bales in the coming weeks and will try to make use of them!


We removed these bales from Findatie

Something that we’ve been getting more of on the reserve are the Whooper Swans. There’s now a lot of them that have managed to push through the recent easterly winds and are now happily “whooping” away on the loch. Look out for the swans with the yellow beak, instead of the orange beaked Mute Swans. They are easiest to see from Burleigh Sands.


Whooper Swan

Other wintering birds have been arriving including lots of winter thrushes, such as Redwings and Fieldfares that only occur here in winter. We’ve also had an increase in the numbers of Song and Mistle Thrushes, so keep an eye out for all of these on the Rowans that are groaning under the weight of their own berries this year.


Rowan berries

It’s not only the thrushes that are becoming more obvious. Robins are setting up territories all around the reserve and can be heard “tack”-ing at you as you walk past them along the path. A bird that is a little more shy is the Bullfinch, but this beautiful male showed quite nicely as he fed on the seedheads of some Meadowsweet.

And of course, this wouldn’t be the Loch Leven blog in October if we didn’t have a picture of some Pink-footed Geese! This lot all lifted off the fields by Balgedie where they were feeding, and flew right over me.


Pink-footed Geese near Loch Leven’s Larder

You may remember we had a Fungi Foray event a couple of weeks back, well I’ve been keeping an eye out for fungi around the reserve and have found some nice ones. However, the best one I’ve found was so obvious that I didn’t have to look very hard at all!


Slime mould

This is something I’ve always wanted to see. This amazing organism, despite consuming dead matter, isn’t a fungi. It’s also not an animal, despite actively moving around in order to hunt down its prey. On top of all this, it’s one of the most colourful things on the reserve at the moment since the majority of the flowers have died back.

Keep an eye out for it along the path by Grahamstone, it could be anywhere, they can even move through tree trunks!

To finish off I’ll leave you with a wee compilation of photos from the past week. My camera has died unfortunately so the pictures end at Wednesday but it was quite nice just being out there and appreciating everything rather than cursing the autofocus for not picking up on the speck above Kinross House that was in fact a Peregrine Falcon!

Lastly, just a note to say, if any of you saw me coughing a lot at the side of the path, it’s because I was trying to identify a type of mushroom. I knew it was a milkcap because when the cap was broken, a sort of milk came out. One good way of identifying them to species is to taste the milk so I dabbed a bit on my tongue… Nothing. So I continued on, making a mental note that there was no taste, when suddenly my throat was on fire! It was one of the hottest things I’ve ever tasted, and turned out to be Fiery Milkcap. Well named, I must say.

P.S. Please leave the mushroom tasting to people who know what it is they are eating, some can be nastier than just very hot!


Milk coming from the Fiery Milkcap

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Moving around

One of the many, many opportunities I get from my placement here with SNH is the opportunity to experience management on different reserve, although I am based at Loch Leven NNR.

Throughout the past week I haven’t spent much time at Loch Leven at all, last Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday I was at Creag Meagaidh NNR (craig meggy) getting my quadbike training, however I took the opportunity to see the management that is put in place on that reserve.

One thing they have at Creag Meagidh that we don’t have at Loch Leven is Red Deer. Red Deer are our largest land mammal and therefore eat quite a lot. That’s not a problem, but when the deer population reaches high levels, they become unsustainable as the rest of the ecosystem can’t cope with all the munching of young trees and other plants.

At Creag Meagaidh there is a lot of deer control put in place and it is amazing to see the results. There has been huge regeneration of birch woodland in the Coire Ardair, Alder trees regenerating along the burn’s that run into Loch Laggan, and Oaks are even beginning to spread back to areas that they once covered.

Over the weekend I drove up to Corrie Fee NNR to join in with the ‘Clash of the Titans’ walk (watching Red Deer rutting). Corrie Fee faces to same problem of too many deer being present, but this does make it very easy to see them on the slopes and crags above.

We didn’t see any antlers locking, pushing or shoving, but we did observe a couple of stags doing a parallel walk in which they walk alongside each other, sizing one another up. If neither stag backs down then the heads turn and they begin to fight.

Also, looking up all the time has it’s benefits, especially when not one but two Golden Eagles soar over the deer that you are watching! After that experience I’m looking forwards to heading up there again next year when all the endangered arctic plants will be in bloom! But this time of year is as good as any, the deer are roaring, the eagles are soaring and the sun is still shining!


Red Deer stag with his hareem of hinds


Compare the eagle with the deer, it’s huge!


Golden Eagle

So, what’s happening at Loch Leven?

The geese are still arriving in their hundreds, and Whooper Swans should be arriving in large numbers round about now. Listen out for their loud whooping calls around the loch.

Finch flocks are forming and Goldfinches in particular are very obvious as you cycle or walk around the loch, when they all fly off the thistle heads that they’ve been feeding on. Brambling, a finch that only spends it’s winter in the UK, should be around now. Keep an eye on the RSPB feeders and you might see one!

Summer migrants have almost all departed. A handful of Swallows were still darting about Kirkgate Park and there were a couple of Wheatears on the path around the Gairney. Otherwise, it’s feeling very autumnal and even maybe a bit wintery!

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Fruitful Fungi Foray

Over the weekend we had our fungi foray event, with Richard Smith leading a group of 18 into the slightly damp (would’ve been better if it had been damper!) Levenmouth Woods looking for any mushrooms, bracket fungus or slime moulds we could see.

The hunt started off well as Richard pointed out some fungi in the car park at Findatie, demonstrating a Fairy Ring of Brown Rollrims.

He also explained that certain fungi will be found in certain habitats, so it can be useful to look at the surrounding vegetation in order to identify a mushroom.

Once we were into the woods it didn’t take long before we’d found some typical species. And what could be more typical in a Silver Birch forest that Birch Polypore? If you look closely you can see all the pores that the spores come from. In other species, they have the typical gills that the spores fall from.


Birch Polypore – Piptoporus betulinus

The next species was a slightly more typical mushroom shape: Stinkhorn, and boy does it stink! There were plenty flies attracted to this one.


Stinkhorn – Phallus impudicus

We found many more species (I’ll post a full list at the end) but I’ll just highlight a few here with pics.

In total we had 36 species which is a very good number considering how dry it’s been recently. I suppose it helped that we had a good turn out so thanks to all that attended!

So as you’re walking about the reserve (or anywhere else) keep an eye out for the wee fungi that help to decompose everything; a key stage in the food chain. Without fungi it would take a very long time for things such as fallen trees to rot down into the soil.


And to finish, here’s the list:

Artist’s Fungus
Brown Birch Bolete
Field Mushroom
Tawny Grisette
Honey Fungus
Common Inkcap
Hoof Fungus
Parrot Waxcap
Sulphur Tuft
Torn Fibrecap
Alder Bracket
Amethyst Deceiver
Rufous Milkcap
Birch Milkcap
Giant Funnel
Puffball sp.
Mycena sp.
Brown Rollrim
Birch Polypore
Velvet Shield
Butter Cap
Ochre Brittlegill
Crab Brittlegill
Common Earthball
Hairy Bracket
Grey Knight
Clustered Toughshank
Magic Mushroom
Herald of Winter
White Fibrecap
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Whoop whoop!


It’s been a very busy week! But the past two days probably make up for the majority of the busy-ness, as we’ve had two groups of S1s from Kinross High School in learning about biodiversity, taxonomy and wildlife recording!

Both days consisted of an introduction to the reserve, what NNRs are all about, what is biodiversity and why we need to protect it, a little starter lesson in taxonomy, and then we went on to the wildlife recording activities.

These included a good ol’ bug hunt, some sweep netting, and (most popular) pond dipping!


Bug hunting at RSPB Loch Leven

The best catch of both days were Great Diving Beetles, caught on both days! It was particularly good to see this in the pond as it showed that the pond had a healthy enough ecosystem that it could support predators such as this one.


Great Diving Beetle – Dytiscus marginalis

We also managed to find frogs, loads and loads of Sticklebacks, Damselfly larva, an Alderfly larvae, Whirligig Beetles, other diving beetles, Black Darter, Orb-weaver Spiders, some moths, and the list goes on!

Whilst helping with the excitement of discovering invertebrates, I did manage to keep an eye out for new arrivals on the loch. The most exciting of these were 8 Whooper Swans flying over the floods at the RSPB section of the reserve, these being the first of the season! I managed to spot 3 yesterday but didn’t have much time to give it a good look. Ospreys are still lingering, they tend to be on fence posts at the RSPB reserve.


Whooper Swans taken through one of the scopes at Vane Farm

There’s been some Pink-footed Geese about, but I haven’t had much time to check their usual haunts so only counted 83 on Tuesday afternoon. We’re putting together plans for a Dawn Goose Watch so keep an eye on the blog and the Scotland’s National Nature Reserves Facebook page where we’ll post details of the event once it’s finalized.


Pinkfeet flighting in to Loch Leven

I’ll finish off with a wee compilation of photos from the reserve from the past few days before I head out and find some wildfowl!

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Signs of Autumn…

Sorry again for the lack of posts over the past couple weeks, I’ve been on the Isle of May helping with various tasks that you can read about on the Isle of May blog. So, back to Loch Leven and what’s happening?

To start off with, there’s a Fungi Foray taking place on this coming Sunday (25th Sept) from 2-4pm! We’ll be meeting in the Findatie car park and then heading into the birch forest around Levenmouth to search for as many species of fungi as possible! There will be an expert mycologist attending so no need to worry if you aren’t a fungus fanatic, the event is for everyone!

As per usual it’s a free event, but please call the office on 01577 864439 to book a place.

I went out on to the reserve on Saturday just to see what was going on and managed to find these. I haven’t got round to trying to identify them yet but maybe we’ll find them again on Sunday!

If a fungi foray isn’t a sign of the changing season then surely the Silver Birch leaves changing colour is? I’m looking forwards to the beautiful view of the canopy once it’s turned that lovely golden colour, especially on cold mornings like the one we’ve had today!


If the breakdown of chlorophyll in the leaves of birch trees hasn’t got you excited for autumn (and I’d find that hard to believe) then surely the arrival of the first Pink-footed Geese of the season will have you anticipating the colder weather!

There were at least 18 of them on the loch when I looked on Saturday, with more migrating over. I even had some fly over me on the Isle of May!

These geese will be very grateful for the food and rest that they can get at Loch Leven after flying from as far away as Eastern Greenland! As many of you will know, the numbers of geese at the loch will far exceed 18, with over 18,000 (10% of the world’s Pink-footed Goose population) using the loch and surrounding fields as their wintering grounds.

However, it’s not just the Pinkfeet using Loch Leven at this time of year. Thousands of other wildfowl and waders use the site to moult their feathers as they can’t fly when this is taking place. On Saturday I was treated to some nice views through the scope of Teal, Shoveler, Pintail, Mallard, Tufted Duck, Pochard, Goldeneye and Gadwall, and that’s just the ducks!

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The calm before the storm

We’re at the time in the year when everything is coming to the end of the breeding season and the majority of the wintering wildfowl are yet to move in from further north.


Just a few duck and grebe broods about the loch now.

Despite this, it’s never really calm around Loch Leven, there’s always something happening! Some wildfowl are already moving in for the winter, including at least 200 Pintail and as many Tufted Ducks as you could need. This will be the first time I’ve ever been at the reserve during winter so I’m looking forward to seeing these numbers increase!

As well as ducks, keep an eye out for waders guddling about at the muddy edges of the loch and on the islands. If you go to Burleigh Hide you might be lucky enough to see a Greenshank close up, or spot a Ruff out on the island, running amongst the legs of the geese and the cormorants.

If birds aren’t your thing then there’s always something else to see. Some plants are still in flower, with Brooklime and Water-cress in the drainage ditches…

It’s also getting towards fungi season! Keep an eye out on the ground for all the mushrooms that are popping up. We’re holding a fungi foray event on the 25th of September, so whether you’re an accomplished spore seeker, or whether you’ve never taken an interest in toadstools, come along and see what you can find! Meeting at Findatie car park at 2pm, we’ll search until 4pm. Call the office on 01577 864439 for more information and to book on to the event. As per usual, it’s free!

Speaking of events, Therese and I have just finished constructing some of the display for the Dundee Food & Flower Festival. We better start tidying up now, but I’ll share pictures of the display once the event is finished (see here for more details)!

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Still some summerness

As mentioned in the previous post, Himalayan Balsam takes priority at this time of year as it is important we get rid of as much as possible whilst it’s yet to develop seed heads. This means it’s been another week of balsam bashing for rangers and volunteers alike.

However, I won’t bore you with more before and after pictures. Instead, I’ll let you know how well the Osprey walk at Burleigh Sands went yesterday (Thursday 18th August).

It started off well, with Ospreys being seen flying over (albeit distantly) but the excitement happened in the last 10 minutes of the event! An Osprey that had been drifting about in front of us (and had already failed a catch) successfully caught a fish not far from the viewers that had decided to stick it out to the end.


One less trout in Loch Leven

Earlier in the week we had a trip out to St Serf’s Isle with Scott, the farmer, his 2 sheepdogs, and Dave, a micropalaeontologist.

Obviously, Scott was there to deal with the sheep. This time we were out in order to check the feet of the sheep for rot. Some had signs of foot rot but we put them through a wee foot bath and let them get back to doing what sheep do best; keeping down the vegetation on St Serf’s.


Scottish Blackface sheep


Ri, one of Scott’s dogs


Dave, the micropalaeontologist, had come all the way from Queen Mary University of London in order to find out whether one species of ostracod crustacean was present in the loch. Ostracods are tiny bivalve crustaceans (sort of like clams) that can be found in the sediment at the bottom of some lochs and other water bodies.

The species Dave was looking for is called Cytherissa lacustris. He took samples back with him so he could figure out whether he’d found what he was looking for, and will let us know in time whether we have Cytherissa lacustris living at the bottom of the loch!

The wildlife on the reserve has been enjoying the recent sunny weather, with Black Darter dragonflies being seen darting about, Red Admirals on the wing, Barnacle Geese in the fields around RSPB Loch Leven, and plenty of lovely flowers out soaking up the rays.

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My first few weeks

Apologies for the gap in posts, I’ve been getting settled into working at Loch Leven over the past 4 weeks. It’s great, and I’m looking forwards to my year working on the reserve and sharing the news of what’s going on around the loch throughout my time here!

To start off, there’s an Osprey Walk next Thursday (18th) from 6pm until 8pm. We’ll be starting the walk from Burleigh Sands by the car park. If you walk down the path towards Burleigh Sands we’ll be there, but don’t forget to book by calling the office on 01577864439 (it’s free to attend)!

There have been plenty of Osprey sightings from around the loch but Burleigh Sands is the most reliable place to see them from, with up to be four being seen at a time.


Osprey over Loch Leven

Many other birds are being seen around the loch, with the first returning wildfowl gathering to moult their feathers in the safety of the open water. Greylag Geese can often be found in the fields feeding on grass shoots, and if you’re lucky you might spot a couple of unusual visitors to the reserve: Bar-headed Geese. These geese are usually found central Asia so where these two have come from is a mystery!


Greylag Geese with 1 Bar-headed Goose amongst them


Tufted Ducks have arrived in force


Volunteers and reserve managers alike have been making a difference around the loch whilst I’ve been here. The hide at Burleigh that was vandalized in my first week has now been repaired, loads of Himalayan Balsam has been pulled and slashed, and most recently, the path by the bridge over the North Queich at Burleigh has been cleared of encroaching vegetation.

Also, I suspect some of you will be happy to know that the car park at Burleigh has been smoothed out so cars are unlikely to get stuck!

One thing I’ve been involved in just about every morning has been the moth trapping. The most exciting of the moths has been a particularly bland looking moth. The Butterbur. This moth feeds on (you guessed it) Butterbur when it is a caterpillar and they rarely stray far from their larval foodplant. The closest Butterbur Jeremy and myself could find was 1.2km away so who knows what this one was doing!



So, I hope to keep you more up-to-date than I have over the past month. For now, I’ll leave you with this picture of a Toadlet. Watch out for these and Froglets along some of the paths around the reserve.


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